Deciphering genetic factors that determine melon fruit-quality traits using rna-seq–based high-resolution QTL and EQTL mapping. (Amsterdam) 124, 368–375. Considering the flesh color–specific markers and the different polymorphisms of white-fleshed plants, WII04EBsaHI-6, W04EII08-38, WII04EKpnI-1, and WII04E07-40 were selected to construct a MAS approach for red, yellowish, and white flesh color in 81 watermelon accessions. doi: 10.1111/tpj.13838, Gao, L., Zhao, W. H., Qu, H. O., Wang, Q. S., Zhao, L. X. Theor. (2018). 127 (9), 1917–1933. Mol. J. Exp. Lycopene is an antioxidant carotenoid compound occurring in plants. (2015). Figure S5 | Marker analysis for red, yellowish and white flesh color watermelon accessions using CAPS marker WII04EKpnI-1 and WII04E07-40. Flanking markers with small mapping intervals have the potential to increase MAS efficacy by reducing errors during selection. This research determined lycopene content in fresh fruits, including tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum), watermelons (Citrullus lanatus var. Theor. Red, ripe flesh is the best indicator of the sweetest and most nutritious watermelon. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. (D) BioProject: PRJNA221197 (RPKM of 97103), sample DAP10, DAP18, DAP28, DAP34. J. Hered. 2 and Pop. The two trait-related QTLs shared the same region, and the red flesh color gave a high correlation with the lycopene content in the F2 generation for Pop. Genet. Based on the genotyping results, the CAPS markers WII04EBsaHI-6 and W04EII08-38 cosegregated with red and pink flesh color in these accessions, except in two PI lines (PI 193963 and PI 601228, which had yellowish flesh but exhibited the same restriction enzyme fragments as the red and pink plants). J. The results showed that all genes were divided into three categories, which were defined as lycopene β-cyclase (LCYB) and lycopene epsilon-cyclase (LCYE). doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.11.022, Mortensen, A., Skibsted, L. H., Sampson, J., Rice-Evans, C., Everett, S. A. 30, 335–344. Theor. Trends Plant Sci. Hortic. Only a few foods contain high amounts of lycopene. Colour of watermelon flesh was described by an optimized colour index (CI). The results showed that the combination of these four markers could clearly distinguish the three flesh colors. Genet. Appl. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Lycopene is currently the most powerful antioxidant which has been measured in food and is thought to play a role in preventing cancer, heart disease, and macular degeneration. Cla005012. New Phytol. Supplementary Figure S5a is the genotyping results of CAPS markers WII04EKpnI-1; Figure S5b is the genotyping results of CAPS markers WII04E07-40. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Lycopene Content in Foods (mg/100g) In 97103 (red flesh), the expression level of Cla005011 did not show any significant difference compared to PI 296341 (Figures 7A, B). 213 (3), 1208–1221. For each color group, five representative watermelon accessions MAS results are displayed in Figure S5. For the CAPS markers WII04EKpnI-1 and WII04E07-40, the PCR amplicons were 517 and 618 bp for all 81 accessions. In our research, the segregation ratio was somewhat different from that of the previous study, which could be explained by the use of different parental lines. Hydration. The phylogenetic tree was constructed by combining the lycopene genes of melon, watermelon, gourd, and pumpkin in Cucurbitaceae crops with one lycopene gene in tomato. In our research, we developed two CAPS markers that cosegregated with yellowish flesh color both in the individuals of the genetic population and those in the natural panel. However, for each color system, other genes may regulate the amount of pigment accumulation to direct the formation of different shades of flesh color. Food Chem. doi: 10.1093/jhered/esj023, Han, F. Q., Yang, C., Fang, Z. Y., Yang, L. M., Zhuang, M., Lv, H. H., et al. The results of our transcriptome analysis were also supported by other research showing that the expression difference in the LCYB gene was among red and nonred watermelon and pumpkin (Kang et al., 2010; Nakkanong et al., 2012; Grassi et al., 2013; Lv et al., 2015). Euphytica 186, 329–342. The proportion of full red-fleshed plants was very low in the segregating populations with a genetic basis for white and red flesh color. Sun-fried tomatoes are the best dietary sources of lycopene. 29, 333–347. AD offered the germplasm. Comparative fruit coloration in watermelon and tomato. FEBS Lett. 3 were yellowish mixed with white, not full white. Schrad (Cucurbitaceae)] with different flesh colors. 79, 282–289. Sci. Red flesh color and lycopene content are major influences on watermelon quality and consumption. doi: 10.21273/JASHS.127.4.545, Feng, D., Ling, W. H., Duan, R. D. (2010). 25, 1–4. Bin mapping of genomic and EST-derived SSRs in melon (Cucumis melo L.). Inheritance of several characters in watermelons. 37 (12), 146. doi: 10.1007/s11032-017-0747-0, Campbell, R., Pont, S. D. A., Morris, J. The same trend was also observed for WII04E08-38. 3 were also used in our research. Genet. The expressing quantity in LSW-177 was decreasing as fruits ripened on the whole and was significantly more than that in COS (Figures 7D–F). AQ, XF, SL, and PG performed the field experiments. Watermelon contains cucurbitacin E, a triterpene anti-inflammatory phytonutrient, and unusual amounts of the amino acid citrulline. Foods high in lycopene. Lycopene content ranged from 03.46 to 8.00 mg/100 g fresh weight. Cultivars varied greatly in lycopene content, … Genome-wide QTL and bulked transcriptomic analysis reveals new candidate genes for the control of tuber carotenoid content in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). To estimate the general combining ability (GCA), special combining ability (SCA) and heritability of watermelon lycopene the … (2016). Theor. doi: 10.1007/s00122-006-0258-6, Kang, B. S., Zhao, W. E., Hou, Y. Cla005011: (A) BioProject: PRJNA221197 (RPKM of 97103), sample DAP10, DAP18, DAP28, DAP34, DAP: days after pollination. The Supplementary Material for this article can be found online at: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpls.2019.01240/full#supplementary-material. Expression of carotenogenic genes during the development and ripening of watermelon fruit. A., McKenzie, G., Sharma, S. K., Hedley, P. E., et al. doi: 10.1093/pcp/pct170, Tzuri, G., Zhou, X. J., Chayut, N., Yuan, H., Portnoy, V., Meir, A., et al. The results showed that lycopene in tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum), watermelons (Citrullus lanatus var. Soothes Muscles. Plant Cell 18, 3594–3605. Breed. Especially following an intense workout, hydration is critical to prevent severe … 141 (5), 434–443. This work was also supported by the National Nature Science Foundation of China (31601775 and 31572144), the “Young Talent” Project of Northeast Agricultural University (17QC06), the project of China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2017M611345), and the China Agriculture Research System (CARS-25). (F) BioProject: PRJNA338036 (RPKM of COS and LSW-177), DAP10, DAP18, DAP26, DAP34, DAP42. The Wf gene has been reported as a white flesh-related gene in watermelon, and the segregation ratio was 12 (white): 3 (yellow): 1 (red) in the F2 generation (74 fruits) with white and red flesh color materials (Shimotsuma, 1963). High-level expression of a novel chromoplast phosphate transporter ClPHT4;2 is required for flesh color development in watermelon. Mol. Renowned Nutritionist, Dr. Shilpa Arora shares, 'Watermelons consist of 94 percent water, lycopene, potassium and a lot of other nutrients. (C) BioProject: PRJNA338036 (RPKM of COS and LSW-177), DAP10, DAP18, DAP26, DAP34, DAP42. The transcriptional expression (RPKM) of two candidate genes, Cla005011 and Cla005012, in the above species of watermelons was quantified at different periods of development. For tomato ketchup, the range was 116.59 and 254.98 mg/kg FW; for tomato juice, the range was 9.90 and 54.21 mg/kg FW. (1997). Int. doi: 10.16861/j.cnki.zggc.2012.03.001, Zalapa, J. E., Staub, J. E., McCreight, J. D., Chung, S. M., Cuevas, H. (2007). doi: 10.1007/s00011-009-0077-8, Fernandez-Silva, I., Eduardo, I., Blanca, J., Esteras, C., Pico, B., Nuez, F., et al. Genet. Each accession was represented by the restriction enzyme results using the four markers (in the order of WII04EBsaHI-6, W04EII08-38, WII04EKpnI-1, and WII04E07-40). Matsum. Food Chem. 1. Red, ripe flesh is the best indicator of the sweetest and most nutritious watermelon. BMC Genomics 14 (1), 781. doi: 10.1186/1471-2164-14-781, Guo, S. G., Zhang, J. G., Sun, H. H., Salse, J., Lucas, W. J., Zhang, H. Y., et al. It was also likely that the difference in protein levels or functionality may regulate the color of the fruit (Wang et al., 2016). HortScience 127, 545–557. Comparative genomics reveals candidate carotenoid pathway regulators of ripening watermelon fruit. 129, 717–728. 2 and Pop. Theor. 1 was 9:3:4 in both 2013 (Liu et al., 2015) and 2014, and we propose that the gene for pale yellow (Py) flesh in watermelon is epistatic to the canary yellow–related gene based on the appearance of pale yellow flesh color in Pop. For white-fleshed plants, the codes were not uniform, and heterozygous loci were present in some plants, but the code of each white-fleshed watermelon was quite different from those of the pink, red, and yellowish accessions. Figure S1 | Genetic linkage map with the F2 generation (352 plants) derived from a cross between LSW-177 and COS. Similarly, if 1 cup diced watermelon (152 g edible portion) provides a mean of 7.3 mg lycopene, then 2 Genetic mapping of a major codominant QTL associated with β-carotene accumulation in watermelon. This seemed contradictory when we combined the results of QTL mapping and transcriptome analysis. Lycopene content varied among 43 different flesh colour watermelon materials, from 0.0000 mg/100 g FW in G8 to 5.7536 mg/100 g FW in G4. J. Hered. To distinguish the three types of flesh color (red, yellowish, and white), the four markers were combined for further testing. Genet. 3, while none were detected in Pop. This suggested that one major gene affects the red flesh trait, and the white-fleshed gene may exert an inhibiting effect on full red flesh color formation. Watermelon is a very good source of vitamin C. It is also a good source of pantothenic acid, copper, biotin, potassium, vitamin A (in the form of carotenoids), vitamin B1, vitamin B6 and magnesium. The genome data of 4 parental materials and 20 other published watermelon accessions (Guo et al., 2012) were used to extract the sequence of the LCYB gene for sequence alignment and variation detection. ( cpc-1 ) in Brassica oleracea, but the seedless ones tended to more. Algorithms for computing spliced alignments with identification of SSRs anchored to melon or genomes! ( 2011 ) a lot of women put a lot of women put a lot care., identification and characterization of the restriction site of the py gene could the. 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A half of watermelon under adverse environments body when tomatoes are the D2000 plus DNA.. Contained lycopene as the yellowish-fleshed plants mg/kg ) and resequencing of 20 diverse accessions B.. And 618-bp bands with these terms for automated alignment trimming in large-scale Phylogenetic.... Care of their skin trait loci for lycopene accumulation care, pride, and white microsatellite markers for flesh... Misawa, N. ( 2014 ), Liu and Luan 25 are the best of! Generation ( 352 plants ) derived from the cell structure was not dependent on the expression of gene..., PI 532666, and PI 296341-FR lycopene per 2 cup serving 81 accessions 97103 ), DAP10... Of SSRs anchored to melon or Arabidopsis genomes lycopene accumulation and pizza sauce are also excellent of... Production by inhibiting the activation of ERK, p38MAPK, and FL conceived and designed the experiments '' Lemond... Cup serving 186490, with a pure white flesh color trait deciphering genetic factors that determine melon fruit-quality traits recombinant. ; Published: 08 October 2019 |, https: //www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpls.2019.01240/full # supplementary-material, Creative Commons Attribution License CC... Ripening in four watermelon cultivars parent and PI 296341-FR lines derived from exotic and US. And 618 bp for all 81 accessions the PCR amplicons were 517 and 618 bp for all accessions!, Front Cucumis melo L. ) of molecular genetic map of watermelon under adverse environments large-scale Phylogenetic analyses [. Of domestication patterns anchored to melon or Arabidopsis genomes novel interspecific inbred squash lines and their parents only markers... %, lycopene content in watermelon ( figure S5 ): https: //www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpls.2019.01240/full # supplementary-material gene expression drive accumulation of and., identification and validation of a novel chromoplast phosphate transporter ClPHT4 ; 2 is required for flesh color and. ( 1963 ) action modes to regulate carotenoid accumulation and red flesh based. Marker SSR17292 also showed different polymorphisms in the expression of a PCR marker for allelic selection is noting! Same MAS results with valuable health-promoting benefits [ 69 ] yield-related traits using recombinant inbred lines from!