2557 0 obj <>stream First, the use of the term “pillars” is misleading as to the nature of these activities within irregular warfare doctrine. Both. Concepts associated with irregular warfare are older than the term itself. Current US military doctrine describes irregular warfare as having five core activities: counterterrorism (CT), unconventional warfare (UW), foreign internal defense (FID), counterinsurgency (COIN), and stability operations (SO). It also carries the implication that these activities will be the primary effort in a campaign, supported by other activities like strategic communications, psychological operations, and civil-military operations. In fact, the activity may support all of these simultaneously. Within the context of this understanding of the operating environment, five types of activities or operations (the 5 “pillars” of conducting irregular warfare) comprise the strategy for addressing irregular threats; these include: counterterrorism, unconventional warfare, foreign internal defense, counterinsurgency, and stability operations. As we know, the five pillars of irregular warfare are rooted within these seven core operations. In irregular warfare, “right” actions are pragmatic because they build legitimacy and avoid injustice. This blog takes a slightly different view of the number and organization of the core activities of irregular warfare. However, the activities listed above are not in the abstract necessary to an irregular warfare campaign. However, we may from time to time use alternate groupings to discuss various aspects of these activities. Executive Summary viii JP 3-57 simultaneously with different effects at each level. The pillars of the trinity provide a foundation to understand how hybrid warfare employs irregular, unconventional, and conventional military power to balance against the risk of war trending towards absolute violence and open conflict. Each of the core activities of irregular warfare has at least one natural partner: unconventional warfare is combatted through counterinsurgency and foreign internal defense, while counterterrorism is naturally paired with terrorism. Irregular warfare remains in the forefront of the Air Force’s warfighting focus. Unconventional Warfare Overview The focus in UW is on the indigenous resistance elements, not U.S. force structures and procedures. Select two of the seven core operations and provide an example of how … (JP 1) According to DoD Defense Directive Number 3000.07 (dated August 28, 2014) irregular warfare includes: f� ���d X�%�� �5�%�lg�JF�����I$5��`�[email protected]�1� In addition, we will discuss other operational activity sets related to irregular warfare, such as intelligence and counterintelligence, organized crime and law enforcement, and security sector reform and assistance. Currently, the definition is ambiguous SOF attempt to solve the problem of IW by preventing, deterring, disrupting, or defeating irregular threats, with the primary emphasis on prevention. Learn how your comment data is processed. A frequent criticism of the United States military is it spends too little time contemplating the future of warfare, choosing instead to refight the last war. IRREGULAR WARFARE 1775–2007 Proceedings of the Fifth Workshop of the Partnership for Peace Consortium’s Military History Working Group THE U.S. ARMY AND IRREGULAR WARFARE, 1775–2007 PIN : 085002–000 United States Army Center of Military History Selected Papers from the 2007 Conference of Army Historians Edited by Richard G. Davis CMO guidance should include higher headquarters objectives and end states synchronized with USG policy and guidance. ,[email protected]$?X%�!�J50�4X�.0{��V�"}��*��ba����,^"�'������L��� �� �3��� � ƛ That process, which went hand in hand with the growth of nation-states, came to a head in the second half of the seventeenth century. Does irregular warfare prop up a government or overthrow it? On the question of irregular warfare, we seem to be in agreement that it is certainly the most common form of warfare today but we part company on whether it … These threats are enmeshed in the population and increasingly empowered by Pillars support a structure and (assuming that they are not merely cosmetic) are necessary to the integrity of that structure. A counter-insurgency or counterinsurgency (COIN) is defined by the United States Department of State as "comprehensive civilian and military efforts taken to simultaneously defeat and contain insurgency and address its root causes".. An insurgency is a rebellion against a constituted authority when those taking part in the rebellion are not recognized as belligerents. While it is unlikely that US forces will conduct these activities itself, it must still understand them in order to confront them (through COIN, FID and CT) and, in the case of insurgency, to support it when required through unconventional warfare. 64 books based on 27 votes: Seven Pillars of Wisdom: A Triumph by T.E. Irregular Warfare Reference Library and Case Studies, Iraqi Counter-Terrorism Service capture ISIS child recruiter, Barnett Rubin’s Theses on Peacemaking in Afghanistan: A Manifesto, The Norms of Proxy War: Guidelines for the Resort to Unconventional Warfare. Seven Pillars of Wisdom: A Triumph (Paperback) by. Airmen continue to plan and counter irregular and evolving threats as joint, multinational, and multi-agency campaigns, beginning with strategy development and concluding with the achievement of the desired end state. It is interesting to note that of these five activities, only one–unconventional warfare–is “offensive” in a strategic sense (counterterrorism is often offensive at the operational and tactical levels, but is reactive and defensive at the strategic level). h�bbd```b``k��[email protected]$s4�d���q�6�D�6�Uf�H&�O0�)���� In a counterinsurgency campaign, for example, the counterinsurgent must do more that simply track down and kill the insurgent leadership, or infiltrate and destroy their sanctuary. States Air Force, Irregular Warfare, AFDD 2-3, Washington, D.C., August 1, 2007, p. 11. Based on the conclusion that the US does not participate in terrorism, counterterrorism is a sufficient activity to cover this domain of warfare, and the fact that insurgencies will be conducted only by proxy allow the US to focus only on unconventional warfare. Lawrence Rather than being viewed as a list of discrete options, these activities (sometimes called the five “pillars” of irregular warfare), according to IW JOC 2.0, may be undertaken in sequence, in parallel, or in blended form as part of a campaign to address irregular threats. Since this blog is not specifically focused on development of US military forces (as the Joint Operating Concepts on Irregular Warfare are), this blog takes the position that there are several sets of core activities: Insurgency and Counterinsurgency; Unconventional Warfare and Foreign Internal Defense; Stability Operations; and Terrorism and Counterterrorism. Failed and Failing States are likely areas where struggles for legitimacy will occur. irregular forms of warfare as effective ways to challenge conventional military powers. In fact, the situations in […] And as has been clear from the time of Sun Tzu, understanding your adversaries’ options and strategies is a foundational requirement to confronting that adversary. USSOCOM Directives 10-1cc (U) and 525- A violent struggle between state and non-state actors for legitimacy and influence over the relevant population (State vs. Non-state) What are the five pillars of irregular warfare? These Five Pillars were published in 2011. There is no right answer, and in different discussions, it may be more useful to use one grouping rather than another. Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window), Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window), The Imperitive: Irregular Warfare and the Future of Security. UW is one of the five main activities identified under Irregular Warfare. As discussed briefly in the previous post, current US military doctrine describes irregular warfare as having five core activities: counterterrorism (CT), unconventional warfare (UW), foreign internal defense (FID), counterinsurgency (COIN), and stability operations (SO). In order to do this, the counterinsurgent must have a keen understanding of the purposes and functions of insurgent movements and their organizational structures. They must also confront the political ideology driving the insurgents and their supporters in order to isolate them and transform their support structures from assets into liabilities. Pillars of Islam, the five religious acts that are considered obligatory for all Muslims: shahadah, the Muslim profession of faith; salat, daily prayer; zakat, the paying of alms to benefit the poor and needy; sawm, fasting during the month of Ramadan; and hajj, the pilgrimage to Mecca. 0 In 2007, UK and coalition forces in the southeastern Iraqi city of Basra faced a series of tactical challenges. Additionally, as the only offensive activity among those listed, unconventional warfare will in many cases be conducted in the absence any of the others. The dividing line between regular and irregular warfare grew more distinct with the spread of standing national armies after the Thirty Years' War. And the same will be true to a lesser extent for the terrorism and stability activities, as we discuss the various overlaps and blended responses inherent in confronting to irregular threats. Nonetheless, there is a significant convergence between several of these activities. In addition to regrouping the activities, it should be noted that two new activities are added: insurgency and terrorism. 2527 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<1D3F9467190F4E42BB2B8AAF05F35B41>]/Index[2476 82]/Info 2475 0 R/Length 188/Prev 749624/Root 2477 0 R/Size 2558/Type/XRef/W[1 3 1]>>stream When derived from an authentic understanding of the population, actions universally viewed as “right” can win the confidence of the governed and lead to legitimacy. This is true in any confrontational pursuit, whether it be politics, the courtroom, business, or the battlefield. In the aftermath of a natural disaster, stability operations may be required to quell rioting and limit looting, but there may be no effective organization to the unrest, limiting the role of counterinsurgency to measures that are essentially prophylactic. The term “core activities” is therefore preferable to “pillars,” since it makes clear the importance of these activities in irregular warfare writ large, but does not imply that each of the activities will be necessary in every irregular warfare campaign. Examining each of these pillars of power will illustrate the advantage the United States has already demonstrated in Iraq and Afghanistan, and how these pillars will give us the strategic advantage in irregular warfare or “COIN,” going forward. The Enduring Pillars of Successful Counterinsurgency. The term irregular warfare seems best to capture the wide variety of these "little wars." Unfortunately, as the above graphic makes clear, there is more than one obvious way that activities related to insurgency may be grouped: along offensive versus defensive lines, train and equip versus direct conduct lines, or simply as a foursome. Irregular warfare is the oldest form of warfare, and it is a phenomenon that goes by many names, including tribal warfare, primitive warfare, "little wars," and low-intensity conflict. Those challenges—like the ones US forces would confront that year and the next further north in Baghdad’s Sadr City neighborhood—offer insight into some universal and enduring characteristics of urban military operations. Irregular Warfare Books Showing 1-50 of 121 Learning to Eat Soup with a Knife: Counterinsurgency Lessons from Malaya and Vietnam (Paperback) by. irregular warfare leadershipto counter the range of compelling irregular challenges we face in the 21st Century. %PDF-1.6 %���� a violent struggle among state and non-state actors for legitimacy and in - fluence over the relevant populations. Show More. What are the 5 pillars of irregular warfare. 2476 0 obj <> endobj By then Lawrence was gone, though not his influence, much to Orde Wingate’s consternation. endstream endobj startxref . Unconventional Warfare 2. Stability operations 5. �W���(��I�ב��F[H r����j��Jd3��h2>��.�?J���W��)oc�[��/�u�%�]��^H���bߤ�R��)S6�����Ȅ��� Y�;L�>���A"��#ɦD���� ¦�/�i>I;���r���B���M�I=���q8A���e�%�we�hG^ɮ����"�9ß5��H8]�����f��tg��b��)o���f� gJ��4ߟ)t. h��T�ku�.w�f]{Y��m���2�n�[���j3��4m�Q:��B� IV'���Z�Y��)��aL�@���{!��Lh_H3m� The DOD Instruction 3000.7 codifies Irregular Warfare as consisting of Counterinsurgency, Stability Operations, Foreign Internal Defense, Counterterrorism, and, importantly, Unconventional Warfare. UW falls within the construct of Irregular Warfare (IW) and is one of U.S. Special Operations Command's (USSOCOM) Core Activities. However, for most of the discussions we will pursue in this blog, the offensive versus defensive lines will be most useful, since it will help to clarify the most vital aspects of each. Advances in technology and other trends in the environment will render such irregular threats ever more lethal, capable of producing widespread chaos, and otherwise difficult to counter. Required fields are marked *. For example, a state conducting an internal counterinsurgency may or may not require a foreign internal defense effort, while a counterterrorism campaign may find that the terrorists have no popular support, obviating the need for counterinsurgency. Beyond simple terminology preferences, there is also the more important issue of precisely what activities are core to irregular warfare. Your email address will not be published. Irregular warfare is defined as:. Thus, as part of a coherent classification system of irregular warfare, they must be included along with their “counter” activities. Therefore, a … These activities are grouped into the pairs above to highlight the offensive and defensive forms of each activity. COIN 3. Hybrid warfare will be a critical challenge to the United States and its allies in the twenty-first century, a challenge openly recognized by the U.S. defense establishment. What is Irregular Warfare? Irregular War And Cyber Warfare; Irregular War And Cyber Warfare. IW favors indirect and asymmetric approaches, though it may employ the full range of military and other capabilities, in order to erode an adversary’s power… UW- overthrow COIN, FID, stability operations, CT - prop up. 1. Which tells us that cyber warfare … %%EOF Consequently, hybrid warfare is … T.E. Your email address will not be published. Notify me of follow-up comments by email. Irregular warfare (IW) is defined in United States joint doctrine as "a violent struggle among state and non-state actors for legitimacy and influence over the relevant populations." UW, FID, COIN, CT, Stability Operations What are the three levels of warfare Christopher J. Heatherly and Casey T. McNicholas. The Insufficiency of U.S. Irregular Warfare Doctrine by John A. Pelleriti, Michael Maloney, David C. Cox, Heather J. Sullivan, J. Eric Piskura and Montigo J. Hawkins - Joint Force Quarterly 93. Notably the relationship between US and China. After 9/11, we identified a need to create a description for what to many appeared to be a new form of warfare – this became Irregular Warfare. The nine case studies in this book are representative of the history of hybrid warfare from ancient times to the present. Irregular warfare (IW) is defined as a violent struggle among state and non- state actors for legitimacy and influence over the relevant populations. Irregular warfare favors indirect and … �?^�M�_�|/�%ؿ�/���}~|��/ ����!�7T�X�:��5�@u��f�@�{�t��)p�~o��=����l�O�bl��Ĵ�7.��;�����c��~0˙�@�@�� �0�͟�ϗR�nS*{"|'[email protected] &r0��/5�f�%�5��j"�j)o��c/}@���B�� �S���c��\�r�h��� ���&��>��L���s��S�����s�Z��E�M�W���1����������e���8.�w���箼�l���7�>��Ͽ�j:�]�~Sd`�w�@�Os%�{_��T��:��׏L8ߚ�(��y!͟�{�7�E~x��px���:�(�j��|�s�� Counter terrorism. USSOCOM-The lesson identified seven core operations; counterinsurgency, stability, countering WMD, counterterrorism, support to major combat operations and campaigns, foreign internal defense and unconventional warfare. Irregular warfare in World War II flourished in inverse proportion to the fortunes of conventional forces. This paper seeks to better understand ethics in irregular war and cyber warfare. IW being defined as: A violent struggle among state and non-state actors for legitimacy and influence over the relevant population(s). This is not merely an academic choice, however, since including all fundamental operational activities is essential to the study of the enemy’s strategic, operational, and tactical considerations. The 2010 Quadrennial Defense Review report uses the term “irregular” only once in its one hundred and five pages and only in terms of a focus on building the joint force’s capability and capacity to deal with irregular warfare while maintaining a clear conventional and nuclear global superiority. one level of warfare may affect all three levels . 913 Words 4 Pages. The key to understanding this is realizing that the US only identified the core activities of irregular warfare according to a purely US-centric point of view. In an irregular struggle, whether against a state or non-state adversary, understanding that adversary’s strategic goals, options and constraints will allow a strategist to formulate a plan to take advantage of his weakest points and properly prepare for attacks against his own. by Admin As discussed briefly in the previous post, current US military doctrine describes irregular warfare as having five core activities: counterterrorism (CT), unconventional warfare (UW), foreign internal defense (FID), counterinsurgency (COIN), and stability operations (SO). FID 4. But terrorism is not on the list according to US joint doctrine… And what about insurgency itself? . While each of these fundamental areas of irregular warfare are inextricably linked to one another, this blog will take on each pairing separately in a series of posts for the sake of clarity, and outline the interlinkages in the course of discussion. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. 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